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in the tribe; and he Is never allowed to speak In
public, lest his linguistic defects should be passed
on to others—and especially the children—and
thus defile the tribal tongue. Therefore, since
we had no books or written language, our mothers
had to spend many hours drilling Into us the
ancient grammar of our tribal speech—which Is
very elaborate, having nine conjugations, four
genders and eighty forms.

Our fathers looked after our physical training,
which was very rigid. Their main idea was to
harden our bodies, make us strong and courageous
and able to stand any amount of pain. The
Indian's only profession was that of a warrior and
hunter. Hence, outside of our linguistic and
moral teaching, our sole training was to make us
brave and stoical and good and courageous fighters.

To toughen our bodies, our fathers used to
whip the boy members of each family as we arose
In the'morning. After they had whipped us they
would hand us the fir branches and tell us to go
to the river and bathe in the cold water. If it was
winter they would make us go out and take a
snow bath. And every time it rained we all had
to strip off and go out for a rain bath. All of
this was to harden our bodies.

Far from disliking this sort of treatment, we
youngsters used to display the welts on our bodies
with great pride* Sometimes we would actually